Histopathological study of placenta in association with deranged thyroid profile,in known case of pre-eclampsia/eclampsia
Objectives: To assess the histo-morphology of placenta in association with abnormal thyroid hormone levels in patients with Pre-eclampsia/Eclampsia, in relation to the birth weight of the baby. Methods: The study was performed in the department of Pathology over a period of 3 months. Cases and controls were evaluated on the basis of 3rd trimester TSH level of the Antenatal patients. Cases were considered as patients who had levels of TSH outside the normal range in 3rdtrimester(0.3-3.1mIU/L).Out of 50 patients ,15 cases and 33 controls were defined. Histopathological report of the resected placenta specimens was received. Clinical details of mother and birth weight of baby were collected. Finally, the correlation between placental histo-morphology, mother's diagnosis and baby birth weight were correlated. Results: Among all the cases, 9 patients (60%) were diagnosed with pre-eclampsia, as compared to 4 (14.8%) among controls. With respect to histology, hemorrhage in the placenta wasobserved more among the cases (13/15; 86.6%) as compared to controls (51.8%). Calcification was more among the controls (55.5% vs 26.6%). Among other characteristics like placental weight, infarction, chorangiosis, syncytial knots and villitis, no significant difference was noted. 58.8% (10/17) babies born to cases had Low birth weight (<2.5 kg) compared to 40.7% in controls. Conclusion: The occurrence of pre-eclampsia was high among the mothers with abnormal thyroid hormone levels. The similar observations were seen in the increased incidence of low birth weight babies. So, we strongly recommend to perform thyroid screening in all the ANC patients.
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