Tropical Journal of Pathology and Microbiology https://pathology.medresearch.in/index.php/jopm <p><em><strong>ISSN: <a href="https://portal.issn.org/resource/ISSN/2456-1487" target="_blank" rel="noopener">2456-1487 (Online)</a>, <a href="https://portal.issn.org/resource/ISSN/2456-9887" target="_blank" rel="noopener">2456-9887 (Print)</a></strong></em></p> <p><em><strong>RNI: MPENG/2017/70771</strong></em></p> Siddharth Health Research and Social Welfare Society en-US Tropical Journal of Pathology and Microbiology 2456-9887 A Cross sectional study on distribution of ABO and Rh blood group antigens among the blood donors at a tertiary care hospital in Andhra Pradesh, India https://pathology.medresearch.in/index.php/jopm/article/view/461 <p>Aims: The study is aimed to determine the distribution pattern of the ABO grouping and Rh typing among blood donors in Great Eastern Medical School and Hospital, Srikakulam and to correlate it with the available data from studies inside India and other parts of the world.</p> <p>Materials and Method: The present study was conducted at Great Eastern Medical School and Hospital, Srikakulam, a tertiary care teaching hospital. All blood donors were done counseling as per NACO guidelines and considered fit for blood donation were included in this study. A total of 5868 blood donors was considered physically screened and declared fit and accepted for blood donation.</p> <p>Results: Out of 5868 donors, 5850 (99.6%) were males and 18 (0.4%) were females. The majority of donors belonged to the age group 26-35 years. The commonest ABO blood group present was B (36.4%) followed by O (35.08%), A (24.4%), and AB (4.12%) while 5743 (97.86%) donors were Rh-positive and 125(2.13%) donors were Rh-negative.</p> <p>Conclusion: Knowledge of the distribution pattern of the different blood groups is very crucial for blood banks and blood transfusion services which significantly contribute to the Health System of the Nation. Knowledge of blood group distribution is important for clinical studies, geographical information, and forensic studies in the general population.</p> Dr. Ponnada Jogi Naidu Dr. Shamili Moningi Copyright (c) 2020 Author (s). Published by Siddharth Health Research and Social Welfare Society https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2020-08-31 2020-08-31 6 6 372 376 10.17511/jopm.2020.i06.01 A clinical and etiological spectrum of thrombocytopenia in adult patients https://pathology.medresearch.in/index.php/jopm/article/view/467 <p>Introduction: Thrombocytopenia is not a disease but is a diagnosis. The detailed knowledge must be acquired from patients who have thrombocytopenia. This study aimed to determine the relative frequency of different disease conditions presenting as newly found thrombocytopenia in adult patients and to determine whether a low platelet count or presence of bleeding manifestation was considered more often as an indicator for platelet transfusion.</p> <p>Materials and Methods: This retrospective study was done at a tertiary care hospital during the period of November 2018 to October 2019. Blood samples were analyzed for Complete Blood Count (CBC). The clinicopathological correlation was done and the findings were tabulated.</p> <p>Results: In present study, the sex distribution of patients of thrombocytopenia was noted as 55.75% male and 44.25% female. The present study showed that most of the cases of thrombocytopenia belonged to the age group of 18-29 years (45%), followed by the age group of 30-39 years (28.75%), the least being in the age group of over 80 years (2.0%). Most of the patients presented with Grade 1 thrombocytopenia (49.5%). The most common etiology responsible for newly diagnosed thrombocytopenia in adult patients was found to be dengue/dengue-like fever (41.75%).</p> <p>Conclusion: It can be concluded from this study that the most common causes for thrombocytopenia are infective causes e.g. dengue, malaria.</p> Dr. Mital Gamit Dr. Gunvanti Rathod Copyright (c) 2020 Author (s). Published by Siddharth Health Research and Social Welfare Society https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2020-08-31 2020-08-31 6 6 377 380 10.17511/jopm.2020.i06.02 Epidemiological and histopathological study of thyroid lesions in a tertiary care hospital in south India https://pathology.medresearch.in/index.php/jopm/article/view/468 <p>Introduction: Thyroid swellings are easily picked up on general physical examination. Due to various cosmetic concerns, there has been a steady increase in thyroid surgeries in recent years. Many epidemiological risk factors have been attributed to the development of various thyroid lesions and malignancies. The present study was carried out to evaluate the epidemiology and histopathological distribution of various thyroid lesions.</p> <p>Material and Methods: This cross-sectional study was carried out among 130 patients presenting with visible thyroid swelling to our tertiary care institution. The post-operative specimens of the thyroid were fixed in 10% formalin, processed, embedded in paraffin blocks, 3-5μm sections cut and stained with Hematoxylin and Eosin.</p> <p>Results: Out of the 152 cases of thyroid lesions analyzed, 12 (7.9%) were simple goiter, 15(9.9%) were multinodular goiter, 47 (30.9%) were adenomas, 52 (34.2%) were papillary carcinomas, 1 (0.6%) was medullary carcinoma. About 96% of the participants had a positive dietary history, 50% of them had a positive family history. Papillary carcinoma and its variants were the most commonly diagnosed lesion accounting for about 34.2% of the cases.</p> <p>Conclusion: Thyroid biopsy rates are on the rise because of increased awareness. Therefore, the detection of thyroid malignancies is also on the rise. The diagnosis and management of thyroid tumors require a collective outlook on the part of the clinician and pathologist. Despite advances in imaging technology pathologists’ role is very important in the diagnosis of thyroid neoplasms and in predicting the prognosis and patient outcome.</p> Dr. Adayalam Chandana Dr. Gomathi. R. Dr. Prakashiny S. S Copyright (c) 2020 Author (s). Published by Siddharth Health Research and Social Welfare Society https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2020-08-31 2020-08-31 6 6 381 386 10.17511/jopm.2020.i06.03 The utility of Fine Needle Aspiration Cytology (FNAC) in the diagnosis of head and neck lesions at tertiary health care level https://pathology.medresearch.in/index.php/jopm/article/view/469 <p>Introduction: FNAC is particularly suitable in the head and neck areas due to its easy accessibility of target sites, minimally invasive nature, excellent patient compliance, and helping of avoidance of surgery in conditions like non-neoplastic, inflammatory, and some tumors.</p> <p>Aim: To assess the prevalence of different types of head and neck lesions and to test the utility of Fine Needle Aspiration Cytology (FNAC) in the diagnosis of head and neck lesions.</p> <p>Material and Methods: A retrospective study of 224 FNAC of head and neck swellings performed as an outdoor procedure from Jan 2018 to June 2019 at the American International Institute of Medical Sciences (AIIMS), GBH General and cancer hospital, Udaipur, Rajasthan.</p> <p>Results: Out of 224 cases, major aspirates were from lymph node 123 (54.91%), followed by skin and soft tissue 42 (18.75%), thyroid 40 (17.85%), salivary gland 13 (5.80%), and Oral cavity 06 (2.67%). Malignant lesions were higher in lymph node 69 (56.09%) and in oral cavity 05 (83.33%). Metastatic carcinoma 66 (53.65%) and lymphoma 03 (2.43%). Colloid goiter 24 (60%), keratinous cyst 27 (64.28%), and Pleomorphic adenoma 04 (30.76%) were common benign lesions in the thyroid, skin and soft tissue, and salivary gland respectively.</p> <p>Conclusions: FNAC can be effectively used in the diagnosis and planning management of various head and neck swellings because it is safe, relatively painless, rapid, outdoor procedure and can differentiate benign from malignant lesions and gives clues for occult primaries in metastatic malignancy.</p> Dr. Dipti Rameshbhai Patel Dr. Shiv Nandan Chawla Copyright (c) 2020 Author (s). Published by Siddharth Health Research and Social Welfare Society https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2020-08-31 2020-08-31 6 6 387 394 10.17511/jopm.2020.i06.04 Histopathological study of non-neoplastic skin lesions in a tertiary care center https://pathology.medresearch.in/index.php/jopm/article/view/470 <p>Introduction: Skin is the largest organ of our body. Non-neoplastic skin lesions are more common than neoplastic lesions. The histopathological study was done to know the prevalence of various non-neoplastic skin lesions of patients who attended the outpatient department of dermatology over a period of three years from Jan 2016-Dec2018. The present study was based on the histopathological presentation of various non-neoplastic skin lesions, their prevalence, and classifying the lesions into various categories.</p> <p>Materials and Methods: In this study total of 209 cases of skin lesions were taken over a period of three years. The diagnosis of these skin lesions was confirmed by histopathological examination with routine hematoxylin and eosin stain.</p> <p>Results: A total of 209 cases of non-neoplastic lesions were taken for the study. Out of these lesions, 63 cases (30.14 %) were non-infectious - vesiculobullous, 54 ( 25.84 %) were reported under the category of infectious etiology, 41 cases (19.62 %) of non-infectious erythematous papulosquamous diseases, 13 cases (6.22 %) of inflammatory disorders, 10 (4.78 %) cases showed connective tissue disorders. 8(3.83%) cases were reported as vasculitis and 2 cases (0.96) of fungal origin. 18 cases come under the miscellaneous category that was correlated clinically and were treated.</p> <p>Conclusion: In the present study of non-neoplastic skin lesions, non-infectious vesiculobullous diseases were more common. Pemphigus Vulgaris was the most common lesion. The non-neoplastic skin lesions were most commonly seen in males than females in our population of the study.</p> Dr. Sridevi Vijayasankar Dr. Lionel Rohit Mathew Dr. Ezhilvizhi Alavandhar Dr. C.S. Vijayalakshmi Copyright (c) 2020 Author (s). Published by Siddharth Health Research and Social Welfare Society https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2020-08-31 2020-08-31 6 6 395 400 10.17511/jopm.2020.i06.05 Transfusion pattern of blood products in a blood bank at a tertiary care hospital https://pathology.medresearch.in/index.php/jopm/article/view/471 <p>Objectives: Blood products in modern-day transfusion practice include, Packed Red Blood Cells, Platelets, Leucocytes, Plasma, Cryoprecipitate, and individual plasma factors. The objective was to study the pattern of usage of various blood products for the commonest clinical indications and to have an overview of the production of blood components.</p> <p>Materials and Methods: In this study, usage of various blood products like Packed Red Blood Cells, Platelet concentrates, Fresh Frozen Plasma, and Cryoprecipitate were studied in the blood bank of Trichy SRM medical college hospital and research center, using blood bank records and correlating with clinical data during the period of June 2015 - June 2020.</p> <p>Observation and result: The pattern of usage among 14,511 units of blood components from June 2015 – June 2020 showed the frequency of usage of Packed Red Blood Cells was more than Fresh Frozen Plasma and whole blood. The usage of whole blood was more than Platelet concentrates and Cryoprecipitate. The most frequently used component was Packed Red blood cells – 7841 units (54%). The second most frequently used component was fresh frozen plasma – 3889 units (26.8%). In the next frequency whole blood- 1955 units (13.5%), platelet concentrates - 797 units (5.5%) and cryoprecipitate – 29 units (0.2%) were used.</p> <p>Conclusion: There has been an appropriate increase in the usage of blood products to meet the clinical demand in treating the patients with an increase in pathological conditions. Specific blood component transfusion should be encouraged for specific indications to reduce non-essential overload to the patients.</p> Dr. Jeevaraj Giridharan Dr. V. Sarada Copyright (c) 2020 Author (s). Published by Siddharth Health Research and Social Welfare Society https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2020-08-31 2020-08-31 6 6 401 409 10.17511/jopm.2020.i06.06 Study of Acute Transfusion Reactions in a tertiary care hospital https://pathology.medresearch.in/index.php/jopm/article/view/477 <p>Introduction: Blood transfusion is an effective way of correcting the hematological needs of patients, but adverse effects do occur during or after transfusion. These adverse events associated with the transfusion of whole blood or one of its components are known as transfusion reactions.</p> <p>Aim: To study the frequency and type of Acute Transfusion Reactions (ATRs) occurred in patients receiving blood transfusions.</p> <p>Materials and Methods: This retrospective observational study was done to know acute transfusion reactions reported to Bharati Vidyapeeth (Deemed to be University) Medical College and Hospital, Blood Bank, Sangli over a period of 5 years (January 2015-December 2019).All ATRs related to whole blood and blood components were analyzed and classified on the basis of their clinical features and laboratory tests.</p> <p>Results: ATRs during or after blood transfusion reported during the five year period were 77 (0.21 %) out of 35,593 units of blood /blood components transfused. ATRs reported were febrile non hemolytic transfusion reactions (FNHTR) 46 (59.74%), allergic Reactions 29 (37.66 %), anaphylactic reactions 2 (2.59 %) in order of frequency.</p> <p>Conclusion: The majority of ATRs were FNHTRs followed by allergic reactions.</p> Dr. Yashodhara Rajesh Gotekar Dr. Amruta Khade Copyright (c) 2020 Author (s). Published by Siddharth Health Research and Social Welfare Society https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2020-08-31 2020-08-31 6 6 410 416 10.17511/jopm.2020.i06.07