Pathology Update: Tropical Journal of Pathology and Microbiology 2020-07-05T13:32:48+00:00 Dr D Sharad Gedam Open Journal Systems <p>ISSN: 2456-1487 (Online), 2456-9887 (Print), Now Monthly, Indexed with Index Copernicus&nbsp;Tropical Journal of Pathology and Microbiology is commencing its publication from July 2015. It is a Monthly, peer reviewed open access medical Journal. It is publishing bi monthly now. It full fill all criteria updated in Sepember 2015 for promotion by MCI {Medical Council of India}. It is Indexed with Index Copernicus: Link Tropical Journal of Pathology and Microbiology is published by Siddharth Health Research and Social Welfare Society which is registered under MP Society registration act, 1973. Link for society Registration. Link 1: This is an open access journal which means that all content is freely available without any charges to the user or his/her institution. Users are allowed to read, download, copy, distribute, print, search, or link to the full texts of the articles in this journal without asking prior permission from the publisher or the author. This is in accordance with the BOAI definition of open access. We welcome articles from all medical specialties. We accept, in English Review articles, Research/Original articles, Case Reports, Case series, Research letters &amp; Letters to Editor. Our motto to is to provide an international platform to the large volume of research work which in going on all around the world. Our mission is to update medical fraternity with the latest knowledge. We are committed and promise to take this journal to greaterer heights. We request all readers to submit articles for the upcoming issue. We are already indexed with Index Copernicus, Google Scholar, Cross reference, Research Boble, etc. We are making efforts to get indexed with other International and National databases shortly.</p> Correlation of ER, PR, Her2neu and Ki67 with other Prognostic factors in Breast Carcinoma 2020-07-05T10:28:48+00:00 Purushotham Reddy Mithraa Devi S <p>Background:In females, breast carcinoma is the most common malignancy accounting for 23% of all malignant tumours. Various predictive and prognostic factors affect tumour progression. In addition to estrogen receptors (ER), progesterone receptors (PR) and human epidermal growth factor receptor (Her2neu), recently Ki67, a proliferative marker has been recognized as an important predictive and prognostic marker in many studies. The aim of the study was to find the correlation of ER, PR, Her2neu and Ki67 tumour markers with menopausal status, tumour size, histopathological grade, mitotic index, lymphovascular invasion and lymph node metastasis.</p> <p>Methods:The present study was conducted on 50 cases of breast carcinomas. The histopathological grading of the breast carcinoma was done according to the Nottingham modification of the Bloom Richardson grading system. All the cases underwent immunohistochemistry for ER, PR, Her2neu and Ki67 expression. Correlation of ER, PR, Her2neu and Ki67 with various prognostic factors was done.</p> <p>Results:The expression of ER and PR decreased as the grade of the tumour increased. Ki67 proliferative index increased as the grade of the tumour increased. Ki67 proliferative index also increased as the mitotic count increased. None of these markers showed a correlation with other prognostic factors.</p> <p>Conclusion: The present study concludes that ER, PR reveals inverse relationship and Ki67 showed a direct relationship with the grade of the tumour. Increased Ki67 proliferative index was associated with increased mitotic activity and less expression of ER, PR; thus carrying a poor prognosis.</p> 2020-06-30T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2020 Author (s). Published by Siddharth Health Research and Social Welfare Society Assessment of serological markers of dengue and it’s correlation to thrombocytopenia 2020-07-05T13:32:48+00:00 Neha Goel Ritika Kansal Amit Joon Jaya T. Hemnani <p>Background:Dengue is an acute, potentially fatal viral infection that can culminate in dengue hemorrhagic fever and dengue shock syndrome. The present study was conducted to assess the correlation between platelet counts and serological markers of dengue infection.</p> <p>Materials and Methods: The present study was conducted among 120 patients suspected of dengue fever. Serum samples were collected from suspected dengue fever patients. The samples were tested for NS1 antigen, IgM, and IgG antibodies using the ICT test kit. The platelet count was recorded in dengue parameter-positive and -negative cases.</p> <p>Results: Out of 120 patients, males were 70 and females were 50. NS1 only was detected in 62, IgM only in 20, IgG only in 14, NS1 and IgM only in 10, NS1 and IgG only in 8 and IgM and IgG only in 6 cases. 62 patients that were positive for NS 1, thrombocytopenia was seen in 48, 12 out of 20 IgM positive patients, 10 out of 14 IgG positive patients, 6 out of 10 NS1 and IgM only positive patients, 4 out of 8 NS1 and IgG only positive patients and 2 out of 6 IgM and IgG only positive patients were detected. The difference was significant (P&lt; 0.05).</p> <p>Conclusion:In fever, thrombocytopenia is observed more uniformly in subjects positive for dengue. WheneverIgM is detected as compared to NS1 and can be used asan indicator to reduce the complication of dengue disease. The use of NS1 in the diagnosis of dengue increases the detection rate significantly.</p> 2020-06-30T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2020 Author (s). Published by Siddharth Health Research and Social Welfare Society Impact of Pandemic COVID-19 on the knowledge and attitude of hand hygiene among medical graduates 2020-07-05T10:22:57+00:00 Rajkumar N. S. Khaja Moinuddin <p>Introduction: Hand hygiene is one of the most important measures among infection control practices. Knowledge of hand hygiene among medical graduates crucial in minimizing nosocomial infections. During the pandemic COVID-19, awareness is being created through various routes concerning hand hygiene to combat the pandemic. The current study targeted at determining the impact of awareness programs on hand hygiene awareness among medical graduates.</p> <p>Materials and Methods: This was a cross-sectional study based on a questionnaire to evaluate the knowledge of hand hygiene among second-year graduate medical students. The structured questionnaire was sent to the participants through the email and Whatsapp in the form of a google doc link. The degree of knowledge of hand hygiene was determined by dividing the responses into three classes based on a score of more than 75% considered good, 50-74% moderate, and 50% considered poor as less than. Individual responses received and the data analyzed.</p> <p>Results: A total of 95 students were included in the study. Out of these 54 (56.84%) were females and 41 (43.16%) males. A preponderance of knowledge level was found to be good (87%) among the participants. It has been observed that the majority of students had a positive attitude towards hand hygiene (98-100%).</p> <p>Conclusion: It was noticed from the results obtained in this study, that a significant rise in the knowledge levels and positive attitude among medical graduates during pandemic COVID-19.</p> 2020-07-05T06:41:05+00:00 Copyright (c) 2020 Author (s). Published by Siddharth Health Research and Social Welfare Society