Hematological profile in typhoid fever
Introduction: Typhoid fever is an acute infection of the blood and intestinal system caused by the bacterium Salmonella typhi. In India S. typhi and S.paratyphi are the common agents of enteric fever. Complications of these lesions are hemorrhage and intestinal perforation. Carrier state is common and bacilli are found in blood, feces and urine. As there is massive multiplication of bacilli in blood stream, this paper aims to study the frequency and severity of hematological changes in patients of typhoid fever with special reference to thrombocytopenia.
Methodology: This study was a hospital based descriptive study conducted on OPD and IPD patients of LLR Hospital Kanpur who presented to Emergency Pathology Lab, GSVM Medical College Kanpur. The study design was cross sectional. Study was designed to include demographics, clinical information and hematological changes observed in each patient of typhoid fever using widal test or positive culture. The data was analyzed to study the changes in hematological parameters in these patients.
Result: The study revealed the sex ratio to be almost unity and maximum cases were seen in 11-20 year age group. Thrombocytopenia was observed in a significant 39.7% and leucopenia in 11.6% of cases. Mean PCV was reduced to 29.6% and mean neutropil percentage was reduced to28% and mean lymphocyte percentage of was 59% showed relative lymphocytosis.
Conclusion: Typhoid fever causes significant hematological changes which could be helpful in diagnosis. Thrombocytopenia is common in typhoid but this association is not well recognized. Awareness of this associate on could be useful in diagnosis of typoid fever more so in under resourced endemic regions in developing countries
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