A study of liquid-based cytology in cervical smears

  • Dr. Bolla Phani Meghana Postgraduate, Department of Pathology, NRI Medical College and Hospital, Chinakakani, Vijayawada, Andhra Pradesh, India
  • Dr. Inuganti Venkata Renuka Professor, and Head of Department, Department of Pathology, NRI Medical College and Hospital, Chinakakani, Vijayawada, Andhra Pradesh, India
  • Dr. Chitturi Ramya Assistant Professor, Department of Pathology, NRI Medical College and Hospital, Chinakakani, Vijayawada, Andhra Pradesh, India
  • Dr. Baddam Durga Prasad Postgraduate, Department of Pathology, NRI Medical College and Hospital, Chinakakani, Vijayawada, Andhra Pradesh, India
  • Dr. Kolla Sireesha Postgraduate, Department of Pathology, NRI Medical College and Hospital, Chinakakani, Vijayawada, Andhra Pradesh, India
Keywords: Epithelial cell abnormalities, Ezi Prep, Pap smear, Liquid-based cytology


Introduction: Cervical cancer is a major health problem. It ranks second in mortality affecting the world population. Cervical cancer has the advantage that it takes a long time for it to develop. During this time it can be diagnosed and treated properly. For this purpose pap smears (cervical smears) are routinely screened for pre-malignant lesions using Liquid Based Cytology.

Purpose: The purpose is to study the prevalence of cervical lesions by EZI PREP method and to determine the prevalence of cervical lesions in various age groups.

Material and Methods: This was a prospective study done in the Department of Pathology. All the data regarding the patient was recorded in a predefined proforma. The sample taken by using an endocervical brush was immersed in a vial and collected at a cytopathology laboratory for further processing by the EZIPREP method.

Results: A total of 1500 cervical smears were taken into the study. The age group of females ranged from 20-80 years. All the satisfactory smears were evaluated. Inflammatory smears, infectious smears, and smears with epithelial cell abnormalities were identified in the present study. Bacterial vaginosis was the most common infectious condition found in the present study. The most common age group for epithelial cell abnormality in the present study was 41-50 years. The most common epithelial cell abnormality in the present study is High grade squamous intraepithelial lesion followed by Low grade squamous intraepithelial lesion.

Conclusion: Out of the 1500 LBC smears studied, the majority (1134) of the smears studied were inflammatory. Epithelial cell abnormalities were found in 21 cases and the most common age group of epithelial abnormalities was the fifth decade.


Download data is not yet available.


Costa MP, Heráclio SA, Coelho AVC, Acioly VL, Souza PE, et al. Comparison of conventional papanicolaou cytology samples with liquid-based cervical cytology samples from women in Pernambuco, Brazil. Braz J Med Biol Res. 2015;48(9):831-838. doi: https://doi.org/10.1590/1414-431x20154252.

Monsonego J, Autillo-Touati A, Bergeron C, Dachez R, Liaras J, Saurel J, et al. Liquid-based cytology for primary cervical cancer screening: a multi-centre study. British J Cancer. 2001;84(3):360-366. doi: https://dx.doi.org/10.1054%2Fbjoc.2000.1588.

Richart RM, Barron BA. A follow up study of patients with cervical dysplasia. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 1969;105(3):386-393. doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/0002-9378(69)90268-3.

Bal MS, Goyal R, Suri AK, Mohi MK. Detection of abnormal cervical cytology in papanicolaou smears. J Cytol. 2012;29(1):45‑47. Available from: http://www.jcytol.org/text.asp?2012/29/1/45/93222.

Shobana R, Saranya B. Comparison of Conventional Papanicolaou Smear and Liquid-based Cytology for Cervical Cancer Screening. Int J Sci Stud. 2019;6(12):64-73.

Bojgua S, Kldiashvili E. Liquid based cytology cervical cancer screening program–Georgian experience. Arch Cancer Res. 2016;4(3):89-95.

Kavatkar AN, Nagwanshi CA, Dabak SM. Study of a manual method of liquid-based cervical cytology. Indian J Pathol Microbiol. 2008;51(2):190-194. Available from: http://www.ijpmonline.org/text.asp?2008/51/2/190/41678.

Sachan PL, Singh M, Patel ML, Sachan R. A study on cervical cancer screening using pap smear test and clinical correlation. Asia Pac J Oncol Nurs. 2018;5(3):337-341. doi: https://doi.org/10.4103/apjon.apjon_15_18.

Sherwani RK, Khan T, Akhtar K, Zeba A, Siddiqui FA, Rahman K, et al. Conventional Pap Smear and Liquid Based Cytology for Cervical Cancer Screening: A Comparative Study. J Cytol. 2007;24(4):167-172. Available from: http://www.jcytol.org/text.asp?2007/24/4/167/41888.

Singh VB, Gupta N, Nijhawan R, Srinivasan R, Suri V, Rajwanshi A. Liquid-based cytology versus conventional cytology for evaluation of cervical Pap smears: Experience from the first 1000 split samples. Indian J Pathol Microbiol. 2015;58(1):17-21. Available from: http://www.ijpmonline.org/text.asp?2015/58/1/17/151157.

Donders GG, Van Bulck B, Caudron J, Londers L, Vereecken A, Spitz B. Relationship of bacterial vaginosis and mycoplasmas to the risk of spontaneous abortion. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2000;183(2):431-437. doi: https://doi.org/10.1067/mob.2000.105738.

Schwebke R. Bacterial vaginosis. Curr Infect Dis Rep. 2000;2:14-17. doi: https://doi.org/10.1007/s11908-000-0082-0.

Singh A, Joshi C, Kujur P, Chandrakar K, Shrivastava S. Liquid-based Cytology versus Conventional Cytology for Evaluation of Cervical Cytology in a Tertiary Care Centre of Chhattisgarh. Int J Sci Stud. 2016;4(9):161-167. doi: https://doi.org/10.17354/ijss/2016/637.

Siebers AG, Klinkhamer PJ, Grefte JM, Massuger LF, Vedder JE, Beijers-Broos A, et al. Comparison of liquid-based cytology with conventional cytology for detection of cervical cancer precursors: a randomized controlled trial. JAMA. 2009;302(16):1757-1764. doi: https://doi.org/10.1001/jama.2009.1569.

Nayar R, Wilbur DC (eds). The Bethesda System for Reporting Cervical Cytology: Definitions, Criteria, and Explanatory Notes. New York, Springer. 3rd Ed; 2015:29-240

Zhu J, Norman I, Elfgren K, Gaberi V, Hagmar B, Hjerpe A, et al. A comparison of liquid-based cytology and pap smearas a screening method for cervical cancer. Oncol Rep. 2007;18(1):157-160.

İlter E, Midi A, Haliloğlu B, Çelik A, Yener AN, Ulu İ, et al. Comparison of conventional and liquid-based cytology: Do the diagnostic benefits outweigh the financial aspect?. Turk J Med Sci. 2012;42(1):1200-1206.

Khamankar ST, Belekar V, Bangal VM, Baniskar SR. Cervical cancer screening: Risk factors for cervical neoplasia among rural women of Nanded Maharashtra. Innov J Med Health Sci. 2014;4(1):312-316. Available from http://innovativejournal.in/index.php/ijmhs/article/view/578.

Macharid HC, Chaseem EJ, Bukiri E, Muchiri L. A comparative analysis of conventional PAP smear cytology, liquid based cytology and colposcopy clinical impression with colposcopy biopsy histology as gold standard in women undergoing colposcopy in Kenyatta national hospital. Int J Reprod Contracept Obstet Gynecol. 2014;3(1):58-63. doi: https://doi.org/10.5455/2320-1770.ijrcog20140311.

Almonte M, Ferreccio C, Winkler JL, Cuzick J, Tsu V, Robles S, et al. Cervical cancer screening by visual inspection, HPV testing, liquid based and conventional cytology in Amazonian Peru. Int J Cancer. 2007;121(4):796-802. doi: https://doi.org/10.1002/ijc.22757.

Chinaka CC, Abudullahi M, Mohammed OM. A comparative study on the use of liquid based cytology and conventional PAP smear in cervical screening. J Med Med Res. 2014;2(4):40-50.

Nigerio SE, Eze JN, Emeke-Trem EN, Edegbe FO. A six-year study of the clinical presentation of cervical cancer and the management challenges encountered at a state teaching hospital. Clin Med Insights Oncol. 2013;7:151-158. doi: https://dx.doi.org/10.4137%2FCMO.S12017.

Sharma P, Rahi M, Lal P. A community-based cervical cancer screening program among women of Delhi using camp approach. Indian J Community Med. 2010;35(1):86-88. Available from: http://www.ijcm.org.in/text.asp?2010/35/1/86/62576.

How to Cite
Phani Meghana, B., Inuganti Venkata, R., Chitturi, R., Baddula, D. P., & Sireesha, K. (2020). A study of liquid-based cytology in cervical smears. Pathology Update: Tropical Journal of Pathology and Microbiology, 6(3), 238-244. https://doi.org/10.17511/jopm.2020.i03.05
Original Article